In such cases, communications must provide answers, rather than asking people to infer them. Information Theory was not just a product of the work of Claude Shannon. The complete program and audio files of most presentations are available on the NAS Web site at H�tT]o�0}ϯ��$��gl�--������P�V�H��d�w�6�A2��+�>�~�s�]r�'��Eb@qB��i�ʉ{K�.ʌ��pNI9['g�{F^ʄ�T77��N��|QM�w��r��~钫�[����Ǐ�K�����������\(�Ң��}I4ИC�1����I�C��4���vr���vL:���!2��Q�?M��{�$$fN�� 0000001643 00000 n Opinion-leader campaigns on climate change, An integrated risk model of a drinking-water-borne cryptosporidiosis outbreak, Usefulness of consumer medication information dispensed in retail pharmacies, Evaluating the effectiveness of risk-reduction strategies for consumer chemical products, A defensible claim? In this indispensable volume, a primer for the information age, Hans Christian von Baeyer presents a clear description of what information is, how concepts of its measurement, meaning, and transmission evolved, and what its ever-expanding presence portends for the future. Thus, the first science of communication is analysis: identifying those few scientific results that people need to know among the myriad scientific facts that it would be nice to know (11, 12). The materiality standard can be formalized in value-of-information analysis (7, 11, 12), asking how much knowing an item of information would affect recipients’ ability to choose wisely. Finding consistent responses to the two formulations suggested that respondents had succeeded in translating their beliefs into these numeric terms. For that reason, I tell my advisees, in our Decision Science major, that they should join a research laboratory, any research laboratory, just to see how science is done. Each of these principles was a discovery in its time. �G���cA���#���ﻑ��'�Fi�!���d��F�6R+ZJ��[�R���bX���^r ��`�$�܂m�,���^?��4�[� Colorín Colorado is a bilingual website in English and Spanish and offers basic parent information in 13 languages. Value elicitation: Is there anything in there? A third was following a proposal from our son Ilya, an evolutionary biologist, to take out our lawn and let our yard go feral with native Pennsylvania flora—after which he taught us how to observe the seasons. Applying that principle could lead them to disregard communications that seem irrelevant, incomprehensible, or untrustworthy (40). Those include private decisions, such as whether to choose fuel-efficient vehicles, robot-guided surgery, or dairy products labeled as “produced by animals not treated with bovine growth hormone—not known to cause health effects.” And they include public decisions, such as whether to support politicians who favor fuel efficiency, lobby for disclosing the risks of medical devices, or vote for referenda limiting agricultural biotechnology. For example, predicting a drug’s risks and benefits for any patient requires behavioral science research, extrapolating from the controlled world of clinical trials to the real world in which people sometimes forget to take their meds and overlook the signs of side effects (6). Indeed, every science-related decision has a human element, arising from the people who design, manufacture, inspect, deploy, monitor, maintain, and finance the technologies involved. Task 4: Evaluate the adequacy of those communications. The same mixed emotions may accompany phenomena that arise from the confluence of technology and society. Image credit: Stephanie Gamez (University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA). science. 0000002012 00000 n all humanity’s? Having understood the range and language of lay beliefs, researchers can then create structured surveys for estimating their prevalence. Copyright © 2020 National Academy of Sciences. Preparation of this paper was supported by the National Science Foundation Grant SES-0949710. For example, if health effects have legal standing in a facility-siting decision, but compensation does not, then local residents may challenge health effect studies, when their real concern is money. Indeed the diversity and directions of their perspectives and interests shaped the direction of Information Theory. TOWARD A NEW SCIENCE OF INFORMATION D Doucette1*, R Bichler 2, W Hofkirchner2, and C Raffl2 *1 The Science of Information Institute, 1737 Q Street, N.W. In order to read or download information the new language of science ebook, you need to create a FREE account. In contrast, science education begins by listening to scientists and learning the facts that they wish to convey (4). Perhaps they do not think that the public can handle such technical information. Introduction. Each is supported by theories, explicating its underlying processes. This paper results from the Arthur M. Sackler Colloquium of the National Academy of Sciences, “The Science of Science Communication,” held May 21–22, 2012, at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, DC. Nor can they fairly evaluate experts’ performance. Online ISSN 1091-6490. The Sackler Colloquium on the “Science of Science Communication” brought together experts in these fields, to interact with one another and make their work accessible to the general scientific community. Such surveys must pose their questions precisely enough to assess respondents’ mastery of the science. It can find that an otherwise poor communication is adequate, because recipients know its content already, and that an otherwise sound communication is inadequate, because recipients’ mental models are too fragmentary to absorb its content.