In 1430 a settlement was reached, and John II led a campaign against Granada, defeating the Muslims in the Battle of Higueruela (1431). Black Friday Sale! In 1418, John married Maria of Aragon, the oldest daughter of his paternal uncle, Ferdinand I of Aragon. John II was the single largest contributor to the continuing construction of the Alcázar of Segovia and built the "New Tower" known today as the "Tower of John II". John took the reins in 1419 but soon placed himself in the hands of his companion Luna, who contested the influence of Ferdinand’s sons in Castile. Omissions? Regency. In 1447 Luna persuaded John, now a widower, to marry Isabella of Portugal, who soon opposed him. Among the most notable of the provisions were outlining that Jews must wear distinctive clothes and banned them from holding administrative positions. https://www.britannica.com/biography/John-II-king-of-Castile, Fact Monster - People - Biography of John II, King of Castile. The king of Castile finally bought off the claim of his English competitor by arranging a marriage between his son Henry and Catherine, daughter of John of Gaunt, in 1387. John II of Castile : biography 6 March 1405 – 20 July 1454 John II (Sp. Interesting stories about famous people, biographies, humorous stories, photos and videos. In 1418, John married his cousin Maria of Aragon, the oldest daughter of the king Ferdinand I of Aragon and his wife Eleanor of Alburquerque. He and Luna vanquished the dissidents at the Battle of Olmedo in 1445. When Ferdinand I died in 1416, his mother governed alone until her death in 1418. John II died in 1454, following which Henry ascended as King Henry IV of Castile. John I (Spanish: Juan I; 24 August 1358 – 9 October 1390) was king of the Crown of Castile from 1379 until 1390. He had no taste except for ornament and no serious interest except in amusements such as verse-making, hunting, and tournaments.  The marriage produced: Of all their children, only the future Henry IV of Castile survived infancy. Corrections? He was "[T]all and handsome, fair-skinned and slightly ruddy… his hair was the color of a very mature hazelnut, the nose a little snub, the eyes between green and blue… he had very graceful legs and feet and hands." This led to factional struggles among the nobles, during which Luna enriched himself and his supporters. The relationship between Álvaro and Juan has been described as pederastic.. It was one of the many misfortunes of Castile that the long reign of John II—forty-nine years—should have been granted to one of the least capable of its kings. At her instigation, he dismissed his faithful and able favorite, an act which is said to have caused him much remorse. John was the son of King Henry III and his wife, Catherine of Lancaster. He was the last monarch of Castile to receive a formal coronation. His mother Catherine and his uncle, Ferdinand, were co-regents during his minority. In 1431 John placed Yusuf IV on the throne of the Moorish kingdom of Granada, in exchange for tribute and vassal status to Castile. He was entirely under the influence of his favourite, Álvaro de Luna, until his second wife, Isabella of Portugal, obtained control of his feeble will. Premium Membership is now 50% off! John succeeded his father on 25 December 1406, and united in his person the claims of both Peter and Henry II. He was "[T]all and handsome, fair-skinned and slightly ruddy... his hair was the color of a very mature hazelnut, the nose a little snub, the eyes between green and blue... he had very graceful legs and feet and hands.". He married Isabella of Portugal (c1428-1496) August 1447 JL. John II of Castile (Spanish: Juan; 6 March 1405 – 20 July 1454) was King of Castile and León from 1406 to 1454. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). : Juan II de Castilla) (6 March 1405 – 20 July 1454) was King of Castile and León from 1406 to 1454. John II of Castile (Spanish: Juan; 6 March 1405 – 20 July 1454) was King of Castile and León from 1406 to 1454. The marriage produced four children: Of all their children, only the future Henry IV of Castile survived infancy. The siblings were later moved to Henry's court at Madrid and were placed in the household of Henry’s wife, Queen Joan. In the beginning of his reign John had to contend with the hostility of John of Gaunt, who claimed the crown by right of his wife Constance, daughter of Peter I the Cruel. John II of Castile, King of Castile, King of León, King of Galicia, King of Toledo, was born 6 March 1405 to Henry III of Castile (1379-1405) and Katherine of Lancaster (1372-1418) and died 20 July 1454 of unspecified causes. He was the son of Henry III of Castile and his wife Katherine of Lancaster, daughter of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster by Constance of Castile, daughter of King Pedro of Castile (known as 'Pedro the Cruel'). © Copyright © 2012-2020 Stories People All rights reserved. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Save 50% off a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Among the most notable of the provisions were; outlining that Jews must wear distinctive clothes and banned them from holding administrative positions. He was nevertheless considered a man of cultivated taste and a patron of poets. His mother was the granddaughter of King Peter, who was ousted by Henry III's grandfather, King Henry II. John II (6 March 1405 – 20 July 1454) was King of Castile from 1406 to 1454. When Ferdinand died in 1416, his mother was sole regent until she died as well, in 1418. His favourite, Álvaro de Luna, heavily influenced him until his second wife, Isabella of Portugal, obtained control of his feeble will. In 1431, John placed Yusuf IV on the throne as the Sultan of Granada in the Moorish Emirate of Granada, in exchange for tribute and vassal status to Castile. His mother and his uncle, King Ferdinand I of Aragon, were co-regents during his minority. He proved unable to govern alone. John II of Castile (Spanish: Juan; 6 March 1405 – 20 July 1454) was King of Castile and León from 1406 to 1454. However, once John took control of the throne for himself in 1418, he (though likely influenced politically by de Luna) reversed such ordinances, favoring instead a more tolerant attitude toward the already battered Jewish population of Castile following the mass wave of conversions between 1391–1415. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Isabella and Alfonso were virtually exiled to Segovia and their mother to Arevalo. He was nevertheless considered a man of cultivated taste and a patron of poets. John succeeded his father, Henry III, as an infant of less than two years of age, under the joint regency of his mother, Catherine of Lancaster, and his uncle, the infante Ferdinand, who became king of Aragon (as Ferdinand I) in 1412. John II, (born March 6, 1405, Toro, Castile—died July 21, 1454, Valladolid), king of Castile from 1406 to 1454; his political weakness led him to rely on his favourite, Álvaro de Luna, whom he made constable. John II died on July 20, 1454 at Valladolid. John II's Regents declared the Valladolid laws in 1411, which restricted the social activity of Jews. FAMpeople is your site which contains biographies of famous people of the past and present. Catherine, Princess of Asturias (1422–1424), his heiress presumptive until her death, Eleanor, Princess of Asturias (1423–1425), his heiress presumptive until the birth of Henry. : Juan II de Castilla) (6 March 1405 – 20 July 1454) was King of Castile and León from 1406 to 1454. John II's reign, lasting 48 years, was one of the longest in Castilian history, but John himself was not a particularly capable monarch. John was amiable, weak, and dependent on those about him. English: John II of Castile (Spanish: Juan II de Castilla; Toro, 6 March 1405 – Valladolid, 20 July 1454) was King of Castile and León from 1406 to 1454, and he was son of the king Henry III of Castile and his wife, Catherine of Lancaster. He was the son of Henry II and of his wife Juana Manuel of Castile. John was widowed in 1445 and remarried to Isabella of Portugal, daughter of Infante John of Portugal, with whom he had two children: From 'Crónica de Juan II' by Lorenza Galindez de Carvajal (1517), "Juan II of Castile; Enrique IV of Castile", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=John_II_of_Castile&oldid=983818813, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 16 October 2020, at 12:24. The King protected the poet Juan de Mena and encouraged other writers. This exchange is depicted in the short ballad the Romance of Abenamar. He was the son of Henry III of Castile and his wife Catherine of Lancaster, daughter of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster by Constance of Castile, daughter of King Peter of Castile.