Louis is generally compared unfavourably to his father, though the problems he faced were of a distinctly different sort. Realizing that the end had come, he reportedly discarded his purple cloak and led his remaining soldiers into a final charge, in which he was killed. Emperors frequently amassed republican titles, notably princeps senatus, consul and pontifex maximus. The Habsburg Monarchy passed to Charles's younger brother Ferdinand, whereas the Spanish Empire was inherited by his son Philip II. A member of the Ottonian dynasty, Otto III was the only son of the Emperor Otto II and his wife Theophanu. The territory of Lorraine (Lothringen in German) is named after him. With Imperium Maius, the emperor was also granted the power to appoint governors of imperial provinces without the interference of the Senate. Agnes of Poitou, Agnes of Aquitaine or Empress Agnes (c. 1025 – 14 December 1077) was Holy Roman Empress and regent of the Holy Roman Empire from 1056 to 1062. Charles IV (Czech: Karel IV., German: Karl IV., Latin: Carolus IV; 14 May 1316 – 29 November 1378), born Wenceslaus, was the second King of Bohemia from the House of Luxembourg, and the first King of Bohemia also to become Holy Roman Emperor. When the Emperor died in 1125 the electors, rejecting the hereditary principle, chose Lothar, duke of Saxony, to succeed him. The founder of the Salian dynasty of emperors, Conrad also served as King of Germany from 1024, King of Italy from 1026, and King of Burgundy from 1033. He never visited the city of Rome during his reign, which marks the beginning of a series of "barracks emperors" who came from the army. While a coronation by the Pope was seen as a requirement for hundreds of years in order to be seen as legitimate, the practice fell into decline during the religious strife that was the Reformation. During his reign in Aquitaine, Louis was charged with the defence of the Empire's southwestern frontier. Eugene III canonized him in 1146, making Henry II the only German monarch to be a saint. Neither conflict was resolved until after his death. He was a son of Emperor Francis I and his wife, Empress Maria Theresa, thus the brother of Marie Antoinette. Maximilian I (22 March 1459 – 12 January 1519), the son of Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor and Eleanor of Portugal, was King of the Romans (also known as King of the Germans) from 1486 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death, though he was never in fact crowned by the Pope, the journey to Rome always being too risky. Though always at war, Charles was a lover of peace. Louis the German - Louis II of Germany - 855-875. Unlike his predecessor, who had focused upon imperial attention in Italy, Henry spent most of his reign concerned with imperial territory north of the Alps. This led him to turn to the Church at an early age, first finding refuge with the Bishop of Freising and later being educated at the cathedral school of Hildesheim. Reaching back to the oldest traditions of job-sharing in the republic, however, Diocletian established at the top of this new structure the Tetrarchy ("rule of four") in an attempt to provide for smoother succession and greater continuity of government. Francis I continued his leading role as an opponent of Napoleonic France in the Napoleonic Wars, and suffered several more defeats after Austerlitz. Pius Felix (Invictus) Augustus: NN representing the individual's personal name; Pius Felix meaning "Pious and Blest"; and Invictus meaning "undefeated". Henry VII of Luxemburg - Holy Roman Emperor - 1308-1313. Wenceslaus (also Wenceslas; Czech: Václav; German: Wenzel, nicknamed der Faule ("the Idle"); 26 February 1361 – 16 August 1419) was, by inheritance, King of Bohemia (as Wenceslaus IV) from 1363 and by election, German King (formally King of the Romans) from 1376. In the era of Diocletian and beyond, princeps fell into disuse and was replaced with dominus ("lord"); later emperors used the formula Imperator Caesar NN. Charles VI (1 October 1685 – 20 October 1740) succeeded his elder brother, Joseph I, as Holy Roman Emperor, King of Bohemia (as Charles II), King of Hungary and Croatia (as Charles III), and King of Serbia (as Charles I), Archduke of Austria, etc., in 1711. The accession of Maximinus Thrax marks both the close and the opening of an era. Historians have searched for superlatives to describe him, as in the case of Professor Donald Detwiler, who wrote: A man of extraordinary culture, energy, and ability – called by a contemporary chronicler stupor mundi (the wonder of the world), by Nietzsche the first European, and by many historians the first modern ruler – Frederick established in Sicily and southern Italy something very much like a modern, centrally governed kingdom with an efficient bureaucracy. Lambert II (c. 880 – 15 October 898) was the King of Italy from 891, Holy Roman Emperor, co-ruling with his father from 892, and Duke of Spoleto and Camerino from his father's death in 894. The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). But outside of Rome, the emperor outranked the consuls and could veto them without the same effects on himself. ), the first Emperor of Austria (Kaiser von Österreich), ruling from 1804 to 1835, so later he was named the one and only Doppelkaiser (double emperor) in history. Emperor Charlemagne - Charles the Great- 800-814. Leopold I (name in full: Leopold Ignaz Joseph Balthasar Felician; Hungarian: I. Lipót; 9 June 1640 – 5 May 1705) was Holy Roman Emperor, King of Hungary and Croatia and King of Bohemia. Berengar I (c. 845 – 7 April 924) was the King of Italy from 887, and Holy Roman Emperor after 915, until his death. During the Imperial election of 1257, a dissident faction chose him to be King of the Romans (Latin: Rex Romanorum; German: Römisch-deutscher König) on 1 April. The Muslim rulers then claimed the title of Caesar of Rome. At the end of the Roman Republic no new, and certainly no single, title indicated the individual who held supreme power. Diocletian's own court was based at Nicomedia. Holy Roman Empress Agnes - Regent - 1056-1068. The second son of Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor, by his first wife, Maria Anna of Spain, Leopold became heir apparent in 1654 by the death of his elder brother Ferdinand IV. Lothair II (835 – August 8, 869) was the king of Lotharingia from 855 until his death. ", Nikephoros I chose to ignore Charlemagne's claim to the imperial title, clearly recognizing the implications of this act. Aside from his military endeavors, Charles is best known for his role in opposing the Protestant Reformation. As the ruler of many greater and lesser European states, Charles had a very complicated coat of arms. Charles provided five ships to Ferdinand Magellan whose voyage – the first circumnavigation of the Earth – laid the foundation for the Pacific oceanic empire of Spain and began Spanish colonization of the Philippines.