However, to notice that two things share attributes in several respects does not imply any similarities in other respects. Therefore, I am standing in the state of Utah. Scientists tried everything imaginable to explain the discrepancy, but they could not do so using the objects that would bear on the orbit of Mercury. Just as a hypothesis cannot be proven but can be disproved, that same is true for a theory. All content in this area was uploaded by Joseph Agassi on Dec 31, 2018, This content downloaded from on Wed, 18 Dec 2013 10:41:08 AM. perspectives, opportunities, objectives and tasks of education in highly intellectual, creative, and innovative areas of science, art and technology in the post-industrial era. 3 The Organization of Inquiry, ed. 10).[1]. This is typical of inductive logic. So a If I generate a testable hypothesis, tests and observations will support it. If there is to be a “theory of inquiry” then surely science and the philosophy of science fulfill this role. The philosophy of science includes the question: What criteria are satisfied by a 'good' theory. For example, Duhem discovered that since scientists disagree on methods, they do not always know what they are doing. In mathematics, what is proven is not the truth of a particular theorem, but that the axioms of the system imply the theorem. How is methodological innovation possible? For interesting explanations regarding the orbit of Mercury and General Relativity, the following links are useful: Occam's razor, sometimes referred to as "ontological parsimony", is roughly stated as: Given a choice between two theories, the simplest is the best. To say that a theorem is proven means that it is impossible for the axioms to be true and the theorem to be false. They are very useful, however, as mathematics has provided great insights into natural science by providing useful models of natural phenomena. In other words, if A implies B, then not B implies not A. Einstein's theory of General Relativity has been supported by many observations using the best scientific instruments and experiments. Which of the following best describes the logic of scientific inquiry? This paper is an attempt to discuss the significance of the problem of scientific discovery to metaphysics and epistemology, which are of seminal significance for an adequate understanding of science as a cognitive inquiry and a creative human endeavor. In arguing from analogy, one infers that since two things are alike in several respects, they are likely to be alike in another respect. Early 20 th -century logics of discovery can best be described as theories of the mental operations involved in knowledge generation. At some point in the past, at least by the time of Aristotle, philosophers recognized that a fundamental distinction should be drawn between two kinds of scientific knowledge—roughly, knowledge that and knowledge why. However, it must have seemed at the time that they did. The logic of social scientific inquiry is based on the use of _____ to guide the inquiry. ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication. Knowing this, a methodologist might improve his own studies. In this classification, a deductive-nomological (D-N) explanation of an occurrence is a valid deduction whose conclusion states that the outcome to be explained did in fact occur. But one counter-example can prove it false. © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. The implication flows in only one direction, as in the syllogism used in the discussion on deduction. [10], The desiderata of a "good" theory have been debated for centuries, going back perhaps even earlier than Occam's razor,[11] which often is taken as an attribute of a good theory. This question has a long history, and many scientists, as well as philosophers, have considered it. For example, we could do a simple syllogism such as the following: Notice that it is not possible (assuming all of the trivial qualifying criteria are supplied) to be in Arches and not be in Utah. In some cases this domain is very large, but in others quite small. For example, Popper would then not hasten to conclude from the fact that past scientists depended on positive evidence that they had better do so in future as well; perhaps a lesser concern with confirmation may increase the productivity of scientific inquiry. However, one can be in Utah while not in Arches National Park. This suggestion commonly is attributed to William of Ockham in the 14th-century, although it probably predates him. Even so, the new explicit awareness of rules previously implicitly known is in itself beneficial.