Though, value is insignificant due to fibre-to-fibre repulsion and dispersion problems. 2015, no. In general synthetic fibres show better mechanical and physical properties compared to the natural fibre whereas the specific modulus and elongation at break are better in natural fibres than the synthetic fibres, which is considered as an important factor in polymer engineering composites [49]. Both ball mill and disc mill can be used to extract PALF from chopped fresh pineapple leaf [113]. The optimum ratio and content of the hybrid fibres were investigated in order to obtain the best thermal and mechanical properties. Pineapple leaf fibre (PALF) is one of the waste materials in agriculture sector, which is widely grown in Malaysia as well as Asia. Pineapple leaf fibre (PALF) is vital natural fibre, which have high specific strength, rigidity, and flexural and torsional rigidity as much as jute fibres. Transformation maximum stress between fibres and matrix has been calculated for the composite of banana and sisal fibre ratio 3 : 1, showing lowest impact strength. Thermoplastics provide more advantage over thermoset polymers. Dew retting is most popular in Europe, but its quality is not good as much as water retting. A detailed study of chemical, physical, and mechanical properties will bring out logical and reasonable utilization of PALF for various applications. Near about 30 million tonnes of natural fibres are produced every year and used as component of many manufacturing processes like clothing, packaging, paper making, automobiles, building materials, and sports equipment [1]. Technical Association of Pulp and Paper Industry (TAPPI) [115] standards reported that the chemical constituents and extractive like holocellulose, α-cellulose, lignin, and ash content of PALF were analysed from different source of fibres, age of fibres, and climatic conditions. PALF is obtained from the pineapple plant’s leaves. Such composite materials exhibit good strength by weight ratio, high tensile and flexural strength, high creep resistance, and high compactness. PALF shows lower degree of compatibility with hydrophobic polymers due to its hygroscopic nature. The fiber can easily retain dyes. N. Lopattananon, Y. Payae, and M. Seadan, J. C. T. B. Bhattacharyya and A. K. Biswas, “Short pineapple leaf fibre reinforced rubber composites,”, B. Ellis, M. S. Foundz, and J. R. Bell, “Effect of cure on the impact behaviour of an epoxy resin,”, J. Gassan and A. K. Bledzki, “Possibilities for improving the mechanical properties of jute/epoxy composites by alkali treatment of fibres,”, D. G. Hepworth, D. M. Bruce, J. F. V. Vincent, and G. Jeronimidis, “Manufacture and mechanical testing of thermosetting natural fibre composites,”, M. Z. Rong, M. Q. Zhang, Y. Liu, G. C. Yang, and H. M. Zeng, “The effect of fiber treatment on the mechanical properties of unidirectional sisal-reinforced epoxy composites,”, I. van de Weyenberg, T. Chi Truong, B. Vangrimde, and I. Verpoest, “Improving the properties of UD flax fibre reinforced composites by applying an alkaline fibre treatment,”, F. G. Shin, X.-J. There are various methods to extract the PALF from leaves of pineapple. And at last leaves come to the dense attached blade serrated roller, which crushes leaves and makes several breaks for the entry passage for the retting microbes [112]. Natural fibres are focused study among researchers and industries, as a replacement of glass fibres to natural fibres. Caribbean region’s long leaves of pineapples are considered the most suitable for fiber extraction. A rough surface improves the affinity of epoxy matrix and interfacial adhesion made strong due to deposition of DGEBA resin on fibres surface. Some of the characteristics of the pineapple fiber are: Handicraft artisans in Philippines have been using pineapple leaves for long to produce cloth. Datta et al. The microfibril angle and arrangement inside the cell wall decide the properties of fibres [81]. Benefits for the environment and competitiveness with man-made materials,” in, R. M. Rowell, A. R. Sanadi, D. F. Caulfield, and R. E. Jacobson, “Utilization of natural fibres in plastic composites-problems and opportunities,” in, L. Yan, N. Chouw, and K. Jayaraman, “Flax fibre and its composites—a review,”, R. M. N. Arib, S. M. Sapuan, M. A. M. M. Hamdan, M. T. Paridah, and H. M. D. K. Zaman, “A literature review of pineapple fibre reinforced polymer composites,”, C. Pavithran, P. S. Mukherjee, M. Brahmakumar, and A. D. Damodaran, “Impact properties of natural fibre composites,”, S. Mishra, M. Misra, S. S. Tripathy, S. K. Nayak, and A. K. Mohanty, “Potentiality of pineapple leaf fibre as reinforcement in PALF-polyester composite: Surface modification and mechanical performance,”, S. Luo and A. N. Netravali, “Interfacial and mechanical properties of environment-friendly ‘green’ composites made from pineapple fibers and poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-valerate) resin,”, W. Liu, M. Misra, P. Askeland, L. T. Drzal, and A. K. Mohanty, “‘Green’ composites from soy based plastic and pineapple leaf fiber: fabrication and properties evaluation,”, J. George, S. S. Bhagawan, and S. Thomas, “Effects of environment on the properties of low-density polyethylene composites reinforced with pineapple-leaf fibre,”, R. K. Samal and M. C. Ray, “Effect of chemical modifications on FTIR spectra. The fibres are then manually detached from the leaves by a method of scraping (coconut husks are good for this) known as decortitation. First sprout of leaf looks decorative; later it converts into 3 ft. long, 2 to 3 inch wide sword shaped and numerous spirally arranged fibrous leaves edges as well as curved towards the cross section to maintain the stiffness of the leaf [93]. Fibrous cell of PALF consists of vascular bundle system in the form of bunches which is obtained after mechanical removal of the entire upper layer after harvesting. A mixture of pineapple juice and sand is powerful cleaner for boat decks. The use of pineapple leaf fibre can be considered relatively as new in the paper manufacturing industry in Malaysia [159]. To evaluate the viability of PALF-vinyl ester ecocomposites, there are many criteria of measurement, for instance, mechanical properties, water absorption, and thermal stability. In the last two decades, a lot of researches have been carried out to optimize the problem of the interfacial adhesion between natural fibres and polymer matrices [82]. Moreover, the surface modification by chemicals like sodium hydroxide (NaOH), 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene, benzoyl peroxide (BPO), and BPO/acetylation can minimize water absorption and improves the mechanical properties [28]. Stalk fibres are collected from husk and straw of crops like wheat, rice, barley, and so forth. Physical and mechanical strength of PALF. The advantage of natural fibres is their continuous supply, easy and safe handling, and biodegradable nature. It can be extracted from the bast stem, leaf, and seeds from the plants in a bundle form; therefore it is also called fibre bundles; extraction method of fibres is similar in both bast stem and leaf, while seed fibres have many methods like cotton lint extracted from ginning process. Amount of cellulose increases from S1 to S2 steadily and hemicelluloses content remains the same in each layer but lignin content shows reciprocal trend to cellulose. These modification methods can be alkaline treatment [33] grafting with malic anhydride copolymer [34] and using saline coupling agent [35]. Relation of fibre size, loading %, and orientation with mechanical properties has been studied. It is source of bioactive compounds, particularly in proteolytic enzymes. Idicula et al. The physicomechanical properties of any natural fibres depend on fibre-matrix adhesion, volume fraction of fibre, aspect ratio, orientation, and stress transfer efficiency at interface [60]. From the socioeconomic prospective, PALF can be a new source of raw material to the industries and can be potential replacement of the expensive and nonrenewable synthetic fibre. Fibre length of 6 mm length was found to be suitable for PALF reinforced with LDPE. On the basis of compound annual growth rate of 3.3%, it is estimated to cross over 3.3 billion pounds [1]. [122] studied many different types of properties and behaviour like morphology of surface structure, tensile behaviour, and dielectric property. PALF-LDPE composites are ecofriendly, biodegradable and exhibit superior performance than any other cellulose-fibre-reinforced LDPE systems [74]. Secondary cell wall is made up by three layers and each layer carries long chain of microfibril [82]. PALF shows good elastic property in cellulose type I structure. After banana and citrus, pineapple (Ananas comosus) is one of the most essential tropical fruits in the world [22]. Part I: source, production, morphology, properties and applications,”, A. R. Mohamed, S. M. Sapuan, M. Shahjahan, and A. Khalina, “Characterization of pineapple leaf fibers from selected Malaysian cultivars,”, L. Y. Mwaikambo and M. P. Ansell, “Chemical modification of hemp, sisal, jute, and kapok fibers by alkalization,”, M. S. Sreekala, M. G. Kumaran, S. Joseph, M. Jacob, and S. Thomas, “Oil palm fibre reinforced phenol formaldehyde composites: influence of fibre surface modifications on the mechanical performance,”, N. I.